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About the Comprehensive Opioid Abuse Program

Welcome to the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) Comprehensive Opioid Abuse Program (COAP) Resource Center. Whether you are a COAP grantee, a concerned family member, a peer recovery coach, or a policymaker, the reason for your visit (and the foundation for this site) is likely the same: to dedicate your time and talents to turning the tide of America's opioid crisis.

The materials in the COAP Resource Center support effective state, tribal, and local responses to the opioid epidemic. Within the COAP Resource Center, you will find:

Please visit the COAP Resource Center often; content is updated frequently.

Scope of the Problem

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, drug overdoses—including illicit drugs and prescription opioids—killed 70,237 Americans in 2017. The rate of drug overdose deaths involving synthetic opioids other than methadone—such as fentanyl, fentanyl analogs, and tramadol—increased by 45 percent from 2016 to 2017. From 1999 through 2013, the rate increased on average by 8 percent per year; however, from 2013 through 2017, the rate increase on average was 71 percent per year. The rate of drug overdose deaths involving heroin in 2017 was the same as in 2016 (4.9 per 100,000), as were the rate of drug overdose deaths involving methadone (1.0) and the rate of drug overdose deaths involving natural and semisynthetic opioids, which includes drugs such as oxycodone and hydrocodone (4.4).

The devastating impact of the opioid epidemic is felt not just in families over the loss of lives but also in law enforcement, health care, schools, and virtually every other segment of society. The White House Council of Economic Advisers estimates that the total economic impact of the opioid crisis in 2015 was $504 billion, or 2.8 percent of the Gross Domestic Product that year. The United States spent nearly $8 billion on criminal justice-related costs due to opioids, almost entirely from state and local governments, according to a 2015 National Center for Injury Prevention and Control study published in the journal Medical Care. The nation’s family courts and child welfare system also have been deeply impacted by the opioid epidemic. According to the Children’s Bureau at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Administration for Children and Families (ACF), approximately 92,000 children were removed from their homes in fiscal year (FY) 2016 because at least one parent had a drug abuse issue. Of the 15 categories states use to report the circumstances associated with a child's removal from home and placement into care, "drug abuse by a parent" had the largest percentage point increase, from 32 percent in FY 2015 to 34 percent in FY 2016.

BJA's COAP's Strategic Focus

COAP’s strategic focus on combatting the opioid epidemic reflects the Attorney General’s commitment to reduce the number of fatal overdoses and to protect the American people. Broadly, COAP’s goals are to: (1) reduce opioid abuse and misuse and the number of overdose fatalities; and (2) support the implementation and enhancement of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) .

COAP focuses on systemwide initiatives, as well as innovative approaches, to promote substance abuse treatment and recovery support. These concepts are rooted in the Sequential Intercept Model. The model provides a conceptual framework that communities can use when considering the interface between the criminal justice and substance abuse treatment systems. Within the criminal justice system, there are numerous intercept points, which are opportunities for linkage to services and for prevention of further involvement with the criminal justice system. The model shows the paths an individual may take through the criminal justice system; where the intercept points fall; and areas that communities can target for diversion, engagement, and reentry. In structuring COAP, BJA leaders have focused on effective policy strategies that include the following:

  • Supporting our nation’s first responders and strengthening their partnerships with behavioral health, public health, and agencies that serve crime victims.
  • Expanding diversion programs for nonviolent individuals who abuse illicit and prescription opioids.
  • Implementing and enhancing PDMPs.
  • Encouraging and supporting comprehensive cross-system planning and collaboration among officials who work in law enforcement, pretrial services, the courts, probation and parole, child welfare, reentry, PDMPs, and emergency medical services, as well as health-care providers, public health partners, and agencies that provide substance abuse treatment and recovery support services.
  • Developing and implementing strategies to identify and provide treatment and recovery support services to high-frequency utilizers of multiple systems (e.g., health care, child welfare, criminal justice) who have a history of opioid abuse.
  • Increasing the availability of treatment and recovery support services in rural or tribal communities by expanding the use of technology-assisted treatment and recovery support services.
  • Enhancing public safety, behavioral health, and public health information-sharing partnerships that leverage key public health and public safety data sets (e.g., de-identified PDMP data, naloxone administrations, fatal and nonfatal overdose data, drug arrests) to create a holistic view of the environment and develop interventions based on this information.

BJA COAP Grantees

For the COAP site-based program, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) solicited proposals to plan and implement comprehensive strategies in response to the growing opioid epidemic and to further DOJ's mission. The purpose of this site-based program is to provide financial and technical assistance to states, units of local government, and tribal governments to plan, develop, and implement comprehensive diversion and alternatives to incarceration programs that expand services to people impacted by the opioid epidemic who come into contact with the criminal justice system. Awards were made to sites based on the following six categories:

First Responder Partnerships Projects

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Technology-Assisted Treatment Projects

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System-Level Diversion Projects

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Statewide Planning, Coordination, and Implementation Projects

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Harold Rogers Prescription Drug Monitoring (PDMP) Implementation and Enhancement Projects

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Public Safety, Behavioral Health, and Public Health Information-Sharing Partnerships Projects

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See All Grantee Sites

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COAP Resources

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COAP Briefing Sheets and Newsletters
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Webinars, Podcasts, and Videos
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Articles and Reports
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Training Opportunities

Training and Technical Assistance

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BJA has assembled a training and technical assistance (TTA) team focused on supporting not only COAP grantees but organizations across the nation facing similar challenges. BJA leaders know that, beyond the funded sites, agencies and communities are daily dedicating time and talents to save their neighbors and neighborhoods.

The COAP Network provides synchronized implementation and delivery of TTA to COAP project teams in the states, counties, and regions tackling—firsthand—the opioid crisis in their communities. Available in-person and virtual TTA services include the following:

  • Leveraging key public health and public safety data sets via:
    • Integration of data sets
    • Measuring performance and effectiveness
  • Promoting substance abuse treatment and recovery support by:
    • Adding peer support to your workforce
    • Facilitating peer-to-peer engagements within the COAP Network
    • Identifying ways to best use peers in your program
    • Implementing diversion and alternative sentence programs
    • Mapping existing diversion and alternatives to correction
    • Offering training on evidence-based programs and practices
    • Providing knowledge, skills, and capacity building on topics related to peer recovery support services
    • Working in rural communities
  • Promoting the reduction of opioid misuse and overdose fatalities through:
    • Medication-assisted treatment
    • Naloxone utilization
    • Overdose prevention programming
    • Technology-assisted treatment
  • Supporting prescription drug monitoring programs by:
    • Facilitating coordination between PDMPs and state and national stakeholders
    • Increasing PDMP efficiencies
  • Supporting Program planning and coordination via:
    • Cross-system planning and prioritization
    • Promoting best practices

To learn more about one or more of these services, contact the COAP TTA provider team. To request services, use the TTA Request Form .

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